Studies and Research Supporting Venodol

Evidence of Cobra Venom for Pain Relief


Macht, D.I. Experimental and Clinical Study of Cobra Venom as an Analgesic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Jan; 22(1):61-71 (1936).

Ruzhu, C., Xiurong, W. The analgesic effect of neurotoxin from Cobra (Naja naja) venom. Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin2, p.018 (1988).

Udani, J.K., Pakdaman, M.D. The Effects of Topical Cobratoxin in Alleviating Muscular Discomfort. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Conference Paper, 11th Annual Natural Supplements Research Competition January 29-February 1, 2014 Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine La Jolla, CA. (2014).

Williams EY. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with cobra venom. J Natl Med Assoc. 52:327-8 (1960)

Xu, J.M., Xu, J.M., Song, S.T., Feng, F.Y., Huang, F.L., Yang, Y., Xie, G.R., Xu, L.G., Zhang, C.Z., Bruno, M., Paradiso, A. Cobrotoxin-containing analgesic compound to treat chronic moderate to severe cancer pain: Results from a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study and from an open-label study. Oncology Reports, 16: 1077-1084 (2006).


Chen, R. ,Robinson, SE. The effect of cholinergic manipulations on the analgesic response to cobrotoxin in mice. Life sciences47(21), pp.1949-1954 (1990).

Cheng, B.C., Zhou, X.P., Zhu, Q., Gong, S., Qin, Z.H., Reid, P.F., Raymond, L.N., Yin, Q.Z., Jiang, X.H. Cobratoxin inhibits pain-evoked discharge of neurons in thalamic parafascicular nucleus in rats: involvement of cholinergic and serotonergic systems. Toxicon54(3), pp.224-232 (2009).

Gomes, A., Datta, P., Das, T., Biswas, A.K., Gomes, A. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity of a cytotoxic protein NN-32 from Indian spectacle cobra (Naja naja) venom in male albino rats. Toxicon90, pp.106-110 (2014).

Gong, S., Liang, Q., Zhu, Q., Ding, D., Yin, Q., Tao, J., Jiang, X. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is involved in the cobratoxin-induced antinociception in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Toxicon93, pp.31-36 (2015).

Jiang, L., Han, Q., Yuan, Z. Purification and characterization of a novel antinociceptive toxin from Cobra venom. Toxicon, 52(5): 638-646 (2008).

Kou JQ, Han R, Xu YL, Ding XL, Wang SZ, Chen CX, Ji HZ, Ding ZH, Qin ZH. Differential Effects of Naja naja atra Venom on Immune Activity. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014:287631 (2014)

Liang, Y.X., Jiang, W.J., Han, L.P., Zhao, S.J. Peripheral and spinal antihyperalgesic activity of najanalgesin isolated from Naja naja atra in a rat experimental model of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience letters460(3), pp.191-195 (2009).

Liang, Y., Jiang, W., Zhang, Z., Yu, J., Tao, L., Zhao, S. Behavioral and morphological evidence for the involvement of glial cells in the antinociceptive effect of najanalgesin in a rat neuropathic pain model. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin35(6), pp.850-854 (2012).

Luoyi, Z. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of cobra (Naja naja) venom. Journal of Fujian Medical University1, p.009 (1988).

Ruzhu, C., Xiurong, W. The analgesic effect of neurotoxin from Cobra (Naja naja) venom. Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin2, p.018 (1988).

Zhu, Q., Huang, J., Wang, S.Z., Qin, Z.H., Lin, F. Cobrotoxin extracted from Naja atra venom relieves arthritis symptoms through anti-inflammation and immunosuppression effects in rat arthritis model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology194, pp.1087-1095 (2016).

Zhu KZ, Liu YL, Gu JH, Qin ZH. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of orally administrated denatured naja naja atra venom on murine rheumatoid arthritis models. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:616241 (2013).


Bhattacharjee, P., Bhattacharyya, D. Therapeutic Use of Snake Venom Components: A Voyage from Ancient to Modern India. Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry11(1), pp.45-54 (2014).

Gazerani, P., Cairns, B.E. Venom-based biotoxins as potential analgesics. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics14(11), pp.1261-1274 (2014).

Gomes, A. Snake Venom – An Anti-Arthritis Natural Product. Al Ameen J. Med. Sci, 3, 176 (2010).

Reid PF. Cobra venom: A review of the old alternative to opiate analgesics. Altern Ther Health Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):58-71

Zambelli, V.O., Pasqualoto, K.F.M., Picolo, G., Chudzinski-Tavassi, A.M., Cury, Y. Harnessing the knowledge of animal toxins to generate drugs. Pharmacological Research112, pp.30-36 (2016).

Caretta Therapeutics, LLC
11147 Aurora Avenue
Aurora Business Park, Building 3
Urbandale, IA 50322